George Watson

# Interdisciplinary scientist at the physics–biology interface


Your connection to this website is end-to-end encrypted using Transport Layer Security (TLS). This makes it difficult for eavesdroppers to read or interfere with your communications with this website. The CDN delivering this website (provided by CloudFlare) is configured to support only TLS versions 1.2 and 1.3. It is recommended that you use a browser that supports the latest version of the protocol.

Both and have valid SSL certificates issued via CloudFlare and Let’s Encrypt. The domain, including all its subdomains, supports HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) and has been submitted to the Chrome preload list. This domain receives an A+ rating from SSL Labs. The domain is deliberately preserved as a backup in case of an issue with the HTTPS/HSTS configuration, but still fully supports HTTPS and receives an A rating. The canonical domain for this website is It is strongly recommended that you use this domain to access this website.

I recommend also using a private DNS protocol such as DNS over HTTPS or DNS over TLS to resolve domain names. Nameservers supporting these protocols include by CloudFlare.

Data collection

I don’t ask for any of your personal data. There is no facility to register a user account on this website, and there are no forms for you to fill in.

Like all websites, some information may be stored in my server logs regarding your visit to this website. These logs include information such as your IP address and User-Agent string, the resources on this server you attempt to access, the address of the page that referred you to the resource, and the status code returned to you by the server, along with the date and time. This information does not identify you personally, and is necessary for the operation and stability of the server. The log files are stored securely on a virtual private server hosted by DigitalOcean, and are regularly rotated. No copies are ever made of any part of these logs.

Aggregate information may be collected for analytics purposes, but cannot be used to identify you personally. See the Analytics section for more information.


I may store first-party cookies on your device for the purpose of server security. This cookie should appear as __cfduid, and is provided by CloudFlare. It consists of a one-way hash of certain values and cannot be used to personally identify you. It provides no capability for cross-site tracking. For more information, see:

A cookie may also be used to store your stylesheet preference. This cookie is called style and contains your chosen stylesheet, if you choose to use the links in the page footer to choose a stylesheet. The cookie may be automatically set with a value of default in the absence of any interaction with the stylesheet chooser. This cookie is provided purely for your convenience, does not identify you personally and cannot be used to track you. The value of this cookie will not be changed if you use your browser’s built-in stylesheet selector.

On pages with embedded equations, your MathJax preferences may be stored using a cookie. MathJax cookies have the prefix mjx, are not used to collect any information about you, and cannot be used to track you. If you disable cookies, the equations should still display correctly, but some functionality may be lost. The MathJax source code is available on GitHub if you’d like to verify that these cookies aren’t evil.

A cookie will also be stored to record that you have dismissed the cookie notification banner, so you don’t get bothered with it every time you visit. This cookie is called cookieconsent_status, and does nothing else. This banner uses Cookie Consent by Insites, but no information is shared with its developers. You can inspect the source code on GitHub.

Other cookies may be stored by the following trusted partners. Links to their cookie policies are provided below.

You can probably disable cookies on a per-site basis in your browser settings. See your browser’s help pages for information on how to do this. You can also delete cookies at any time. See the Opting Out section for more information.

Other organisations

I may embed content from other organisations. This content is subject to those organisations’ privacy policies. If you do not agree to their terms, it may be possible to disable tracking by visiting those websites. Otherwise, you can always block this content; see the Opting Out section for details.

For your convenience, a non-exhaustive list of such organisations is provided below, including links to their privacy policies. I recommend that you familiarise yourself with these, since these all form core parts of the modern Web infrastructure and are widely used across many websites.


Google Analytics provide web analytics on this website. This consists of aggregate data, and does not allow me to identify you personally. This information is stored on Google’s servers. See Google’s privacy policy for more information.

The Google Analytics code will not be loaded if your browser sends a Do Not Track (DNT) header. You can probably enable this in your browser’s settings. See the Opting Out section for more information.

Opting Out

You can opt out of cookies by disabling them for this website — or for all websites — in your browser settings. Existing cookies can be deleted in your browser, probably near where your history is stored. You could also choose to browse in Private/Incognito mode.

You can opt out of analytics by sending the Do Not Track (DNT) header with your HTTPS request. You can probably enable this in your browser’s settings. This will prevent the Google Analytics code from being loaded, and is also respected by Disqus.

You can disable embedded widgets such as Disqus comments and Twitter timelines by disabling JavaScript in your browser, or by using one of the many browser extensions that allow you to block specific frames of external content. This prevents these companies from tracking you. Where it is reasonable to do so, an appropriate fallback will be provided.

Your User-Agent string can probably be changed in your browser. Your IP address can be masked by using a web proxy or VPN service, many of which are available for free. Any referrer information can be removed from your request by pasting the URL directly into your address bar instead of following a hyperlink. If you’re privacy-conscious enough to care about these things, you probably already know what you’re doing.

These opt-out mechanisms are simple and standardised, and provide fine-grained control across multiple websites. I consider this superior to the deliberately difficult, confusing, and non-standard mechanisms provided by most websites in the name of GDPR compliance.


I reside in England, in the United Kingdom. My server is hosted in London, UK, by DigitalOcean, a company based in New York, United States.

I am proudly based in the European Union — for now.

Every effort has been made to comply with the laws of England & Wales, the wider UK, and the EU. I am not bound by the laws of any other legal system, and it would be both impractical and inappropriate to follow them all;1 it is your responsibility to ensure that you are not breaking any local laws by visiting or interacting with this website.

I am not responsible for the content or policies of most external websites, even if I embed or hyperlink to them. Linking to, embedding, discussing, or recommending an external website or organisation does not imbue me with responsibility for that website or organisation’s actions, and should not be viewed as an endorsement of their privacy policies. Other websites will have privacy policies that differ from this one. Nothing in this privacy policy applies to other websites, and it is your responsibility to ensure that you agree to the terms of any websites or organisations with which you choose to interact.

Transparency Report

  • I have never received any request for personal information regarding any visitor to this website from a government or law enforcement agency.
  • I have never been enjoined or otherwise legally prevented from publishing any material on this website.

The above notices are correct as of commit 96329a9 on 11 December 2019. The largest number of notices ever displayed above is 2. What’s this?

Updates and Queries

This policy was last updated in commit 865bd10 on 20 August 2019. All changes to this privacy policy will be recorded in the commit history of the GitHub repository associated with this website.

If you have any queries, contact or use one of the other contact media listed on the Contact page.

  1. In particular, some legal systems prohibit the dissemination of certain factual material, or the “promotion” of lifestyles the government of the day considers immoral. While I am bound by the laws of my own locality, it would be inappropriate for me to aid oppressive regimes in their persecution of political rivals and minority groups.